Skill Development and Job Creation
Honourable Prime Minister has spelled skill development and job Creation among his priorities which is the need of hour. Experts have estimated that India has a potential to create 500 million jobs by 2022. The challenge is big but this target could be achieved by concerted and sincere efforts by all the ministries in this direction. India is a land of unlimited opportunities and our home market is quite big and empowered people with jobs will push the markets to new heights. According to national skill development corporation only 25% of our technical graduates and 10 to 15% of other graduates are considered employable by IT and ITES- manufacturing, telecom ,retails. NSDC data reveals that net enrolment in vocational courses is 5.5 million in our country whereas china enroll 90 million and US 11.3 million. We need the training capacity for 40-50 million people annually. To meet this objective we need innovative strategies which suit the capacities and capabilities of the workforce available. We have identified the areas where formal training could be imparted to millions through the initiative of public and private sector. We have identified the sectors which will absorb the people easily.
*Education- India is short of technical teachers and it is estimated that 1.75 lakh vacancies are there in technical institutes. Since we have bigger targets so we have to encourage more students to opt for master and doctorate programmes in engineering and science. We are producing only 10000PHDs whereas China is 20 times more. Only 2% of our labour is formally trained so we need to bridge this gap. This is possible by increasing the post graduation seats and by undertaking the research in collaboration with industries and users. Education needs a structural reforms and after middle classes vocational education is to be imparted to those who could not perform in academics. Career counselling by experts after schooling is must to identify the right people for right jobs. Interface with industry in designing the curriculum and on the job training ,imparting soft skills and communication skills with the main syllabus is must for all. Primary and Secondary teachers are to be given regular trainings in modern educational techniques . Computer aided education is to be promoted and regular refreshing courses for teachers at primary and secondary level are to be undertaken at massive scale with missionary zeal. To clear the backlog of vacancies i n schools and colleges and to meet the future needs of teachers this sector could create 1.5 million jobs every year. Private sector should be encouraged to spend in this sector by making suitable economic models based on local conditions and business environment.
*Health- Health care sector employ about 3.8 million people. Annual compounded growth rate is13-14%. By 2022 there is a potential to employ additional 13.3 million people. Private health care sector contribute 75% of India’s health care industry. Four lakh people from ninety countries come to India every year for treatment and this figure could treble in five years. Telemedicine’s, Laser technology, Cyber knife and Robotic
surgery has to be technologically driven. Anti-natal diagnosis, stem cell therepies,regenerative medicines, bio-technology and non- invasive treatment held the key. We have to train our people with special focus on these. We have to train E health technocrats,sports psychologists,health educators,speech therapists and dieticians in large number. The existing facilities in public and private sector is to be further upgraded and private sector is to be encouraged to open more training institutes with a emphasis on quality and world class infra. Private sector is to be roped in to open more medical colleges so that our students who are going abroad for medical degrees to Russia.China ,Nepal and other s to spend the money in India only. We should encourage students from other countries to study here and earn foreign exchange. The health regulators should come up with innovative policies to encourage private sector to invest in this sector.
*Tourism- This sector could bring maximum jobs for people with lesser abilities also. Tourism contributes only 2% to our GDP which could be increased three fold in five years. We attract less than 1% of international tourist’s traffic whereas our neighbour china attracts 8 to 10 % of traffic. Here we need to train people in formal and informal ways by taking the help of tourism industry. Govt. could sponsor candidate to hotel, restaurants and event managers for learning the skills like cooking- Indian ,Chinese ,Fast food ,and tandoor , housekeeping, reception .event management and other skills. The sponsored candidate will be given a stipend of say Rs1500 per month by the government. After one year training they will undergo a efficiency test in govt. or govt. sponsored institute which will give them skill proficiency certificate. I feel we can train 1.5 to 2 million people this way in a year and jobs will be available to them immediately. Many can go abroad or can start their own ventures .Local youth of tourist places are to be trained as a guide and facilitators by giving them condensed courses at their place by experts. Brilliants among them will be asked to learn foreign languages like chinease, German ,Spanish Japanease, Korean and others as per the expected flow of tourists. Tourist generating economies of the world like China ,Japan, is not very far from us. Outbound tourists from China will be 100 million from 2016 onwards.
Home makers-Upper middle class and rich people employ the servants at their houses.This sector are unorganised and lot of exploitation takes place. We have to organise this sector by making policies which provides empowerment to workers and guarantee better services to the user. Since most of the people are hired from Jharkhand, Uttarpradesh ,West Bengal ,Chattisgarh,Orissa and other poor states. We have to open training institutes for such people in these states by involving the experts in Hygiene,Cooking, Child psychologists,House keeping by involving private trainer. These people should be issued certificate by the govt. sponsored institutes and grades are to be given to such trainees by these institutes as per their skills and knowledge gained. These people should be provided placement by the govt. recognised agencies and their records will be maintained by these agencies for their welfare and social security. We can provide honourable employment to five million people in two years in this sector.
Technicians- We need technicians of various type in service sector. India will be by 2020 third largest producer of automobiles. We need master- trainer scheme where we can sponsor candidates to auto mechanics, auto electricians and garage owners,govt. transport corporation for training. Govt. is to provide skill development allowance of Rs 1500 per month to these trainees. Capsule and condensed courses are to be designed for these trainees. After training of 1-2 years they will undergo test in govt.ITI or Govt. poly technics which will issue them the certificates. This way we can find employment for 1to 1.5 million people every year,
*Construction – Construction industry provides lot of jobs but there is a shortage of trained manpower in this sector. We need to train people by involving construction contractors, builders and govt. departments like PWD,Irrigation,electricity departments and others. Here again candidates are to be sponsored by the govt. and govt. will pay them skill development allowance and design capsule courses for them in different fields like- Masons, plumbers,wielders, Painters,Tile fitters,electricians and host of other activities involved in construction industry. They will be issued the certificates by govt. recognised institutes after completion of their training. Courses could also be designed for them in second level to further enhance their skills. We can employ 2to 3 million people this way per year.
*Handloom and Handicrafts- We can impart higher order learning skills to the people already working in this field by involving experts from the field to further enhance the skill of the workers. We can guide people on the use of latest technologies and computer generated designs to do the value addition in their products. We can file GI patents to have a special identification for the product. Since this sector contribute substantially to our export so new innovative approach is required. Many private institutes are there in the field of fashion technology and design we can take their help.This will give their students the exposure and interface with the handloom and handicraft industry and economically empower the people involved inthis sector and 1 million more jobs could be created annually in this sector.
Agriculture and horticulture- This sector is contributing to GDP only15% whereas lot of scope exists in this sector to empower the people near their home. We have to train people in organic food ,vegetables and fruit cultivation. We have to encourage food processing industries in private, cooperative and public sector so that there are no wastages and value addition near the production center. Warehousing and cold storages are to promoted near the growers by involving the locals in suitable economic models.. This can enhance rural income and empower the farmers at their place only. We need to train people in handling the agricultural produce by having workshops and training programmes for youths in agricultural universities and govt. departments like agriculture,horticulture,soil conservation ,forests etc. are to be involved.Govt. research institution in these fields should design the training programmes and market linkages so that our people can be economically empowered. Increase in rural income will charge the overall economy and migration could also be checked to crowded cities. Recent WTO negotiation have opened the big window of opportunities for India since international trade will zoom by 960 billion dollar and savings in present international trade will be 1000 billion dollars. This will create 18 million jobs in developing world like China, India ,Brazil etc. We can have our share in it by encouraging business friendly policies.
*Aquaculture- We have many man made and natural water bodies where we can take up captive cultivation of high value marine produce for local and export markets. Fresh water prawns,lobsters and crabs and others are in great demand for domestic and export markets. These venture could be started in privete, cooperative and public private ownership by involving fisheries departments and exporters and processing industries in suitable economic models. We can create millions of jobs in this sector. The people near these water bodies could be suitably employed and economically empowered near their place.
10 Forest Management- We have many states which are rich in forests like Himachal,J&K,Uttarakhand,Assam,Jharkhand,Chatisgarh and others which has substantial forest covers. These forests are generating eco-service benefits of lakh of crores but there are very meagre income from such a big resource for the states and local communities which has led to naxalism and other problems. Forests could be harvested for herbal produce,high value timbers, Bee keeping,wild fruits, vegetables and organic susbstitues for insectsides and pesticides,organic manures,household and industrial fuels and for earning carbon credits and many more. Proper and scientific harvesting of our forests can create million of jobs for local communities and could contribute for the govt. income. Many economic models are there for this.
11- IT- IT sector has been holding the key for our economy for the last ten years and still holds a promise for good double digit growth. Now this sector needs to move to three tier and four tier cities to make opportunities available to youths near their place.Now we have to look at analytical market in this sector which could grow in small cities and towns. The world maker in analytical IT is roughly 100 billion dollar and still growing and because of low cost in small places we could face competition at world level.
These are eleven points there could be hundred which can change the country in this belated era of optimism and feel good generated by this govt. To get the desired results missionary zeal on all level is required. Detailed economic models on all points are there.
- Umesh Gautam